With aging the skin droops and develops wrinkles, lines and furrows. The severity of these changes in an individual depends on genetic tendency, skin phototype (amount of pigment on the skin) and exposure to environmental factors.
Facial lines and wrinkles (rhytides) form because of the following factors:
Other skin diseases with a tendency to scar (e.g. discoid lupus)
There is often a degree of asymmetry to the lines, as people tend to smile or frown more on one side than the other, or consistently sleep on the right or the left cheek.
Fine lines and wrinkles arise because of irregular thickening of the dermis and because of a decrease in the amount of water held by the epidermis. This is mainly caused by sun damage and exposure to environmental toxins particularly tobacco smoke.
Deeper lines or furrows are classified as dynamic or static. Dynamic lines appear with movement i.e. the activity of facial muscles. Static lines are unchanged with muscle movement. Eventually dynamic lines become static.
Crow’s feet around the eyes are due to smiling and activity of the eyelid muscles (orbicularis oculi).
Worry Lines on the forehead are due to contraction of the frontalis muscle when raising the eyebrows
Frown Lines between the eyebrows are due to contraction of corrugator supercilii muscles and procerus muscle when concentrating or angry
Treatments to protect your skin from the sun
Anti-aging formulas (antioxidants and defoliants, specially retinoids)
Resurfacing: chemical peels, dermabrasion and laser resurfacing. This laser treatment is the one that shows the most impressive results. At AgeFocus we use the Palomar fractional laser (ablative and non ablative).
Fillers: they can fill individual lines (see fillers section)
Neurotoxins:are most useful for dynamic lines. It can be used to weaken the muscles that are responsible for frown lines, crow’s feet and forehead lines. It can also be used to change the shape of the eyebrows, to soften so-called smoker’s lines around the lips, and to reduce appearance of neck lines among other uses.
This is an FDA approved cosmetic that is used for the temporary improvement of moderate to severe facial lines. “Toxins” are done by injection and can last 3-6 months.
Xeomin is a recently approved toxin for the correction of facial wrinkles.
Most people tolerate it quite well. If Botox side effects do occur, in most cases, they are minor and either require no treatment or are easily treated.
Local spread of the medication make cause weakening of adjacent muscles, although this is rare.
Occasional mild skin redness or even bruising is possible.
Due to the fact that the neurotoxin needs to bind to the nerves, the “muscle relaxation” is gradual, usually starting being notisable 2-3 days after the injection, with full effect 7 days later.